November 29, 2021

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Key findings of the UN Climate Conference

Prior to its launch, the United Nations International Climate Summit in Scotland, also known as COP26, was announced by its main organizer. “The best and last hope“To save the earth.

In the meanwhile, the optimistic assessments of their progress indicated that state leaders and business leaders had come into practice to collect new ones. Promises High impact on the weather indicates that the speed is gathering in the right direction.

What is the pessimistic outlook?

Vague promises cannot be great without concrete plans to keep them.

Swedish activist Greta Dunberg The conference in Glasgow accused him of “blah, blah, blah.”

On Saturday, diplomats from nearly 200 countries were shut down Agreement It is accelerating efforts to combat climate change, calling on governments to return next year with strong plans to control global warming emissions and urging rich nations to “at least double” funding by 2025 to protect the most vulnerable from the dangers posed by warming temperatures. .

Here are some highlights from the 26th Annual United Nations Summit on Climate Change.

It’s time to act

The agreement established the clear consensus that all countries must do more to prevent a catastrophic rise in global warming.

As the conference began, the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said controlling global warming to just 1.5 degrees Celsius should be paramount, rather than pre-industrial levels.

Scientists have warned that exceeding that limit will greatly increase the risk of disasters such as deadly heat waves, water shortages and the collapse of ecosystems.

The planet’s temperature has already risen by 1.1 degrees Celsius.

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“The truth is, you have two different facts at stake,” Helen Mountford, vice president of climate and economics at the World Resource Organization, said last week.

“We have made more progress than we thought two years ago, but we are still there Very very More than necessary ”.

The agreement outlines specific actions that the world must take, from halving global carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 to controlling the emission of another powerful greenhouse gas, methane.

In addition, it establishes new rules to hold countries accountable for the progress they make or do not make.

Maldives Environment Minister Shauna Aminath said in a recent speech that there was no “urgency” for vulnerable countries like hers.

“What seems symmetrical and pragmatic to other parties will not help the Maldives transform in a timely manner,” he said.

Who should make the cuts and how many?

The final deal is out no answer The important question is how much each country should reduce emissions over the next decade and how quickly.

Including rich countries USA, Canada, Japan And much of Western Europe today, accounting for only 12 percent of the world’s population, but responsible for 50 percent of all global warming-related greenhouse gases released by fossil fuels and industry over the past 170 years.

President of the United States Joe Biden And countries like European leaders have insisted India, Indonesia and South Africa They need to accelerate from the energy generated by coal and other fossil fuels.

However, these countries respond that they do not have the financial resources to do so and that the rich countries have avoided their assistance.

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A decade ago, the world’s most powerful economies promised to allocate $ 100 billion annually to poor countries by 2020.

But they still owe billions of dollars a year.

The COP26 agreement has failed to return clean energy to developing countries and provide much needed funding for increasingly severe climate disasters.

Calls for Disaster Relief and Regulatory Increase

One of the biggest debates at the summit was whether the rich countries, which have so far been proportionally responsible for global warming, should or should not compensate poor countries for the damage caused by global warming. It.

This fund, “Loss and damage“Money is independent to help poor countries adapt to the changing climate.

“Loss and damage” is, according to its supporters, a historic responsibility and involves irreparable losses such as the demise of national territories, cultures and ecosystems.

The 2015 Paris Agreement laid down clear rules on how to allow polluting companies and countries to buy and trade permits to reduce global emissions, but this dense and technical topic was under discussion in Glasgow on Saturday.

Negotiators announced a major deal on how to regulate the growing global carbon offset market, in which a company or country reduces them by paying third parties to offset its own emissions.

One of the most difficult issues is how to record these global transactions so that no reduction is calculated to be excessive or double.

Different faces of climate action

There was a clear generational and gender gap in the Glasgow talks.

Those who have the power to determine how much the world warms in the coming decades are, most likely, old white men.

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Mostly angry at the pace of climate action are mostly young women.

Malik Amin Aslam, adviser to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, mocked some of the far-reaching targets of net zero emissions announced during the conference, including India:

“With the average being 60 years old, I doubt anyone in the negotiating room will be alive to experience that net zero in 2070,” he said.

On the first day of the conference, Dunberg joined dozens of protesters in the streets outside the summit.

Throughout the two-week conference, he and other young climate activists – including Vanessa Naked, Dominica Lasotta and Mitsui Don– Appeared several times in struggles.

In an interview with the BBC ahead of the summit, Dunberg said he had not been invited to the official speech.

He added that he believes the organizers did not invite many young speakers, because “if they call too many young ‘extremists’, they will be afraid that they will look bad,” he declared, drawing quotes in the air.

c.2021 The New York Times Institute